Logging in Russia
The forest industry of Russia represents two directions-harvesting of wood and its processing. The logging industry provides raw materials for almost all branches of production, and also makes a great contribution to the country's economy. Annual rate of forest use-700 million M3 which is 30%. Russia occupies one of the leading places in the world for the production of large timber. The forest resources of our country to be exploited are the richest.
By whom and how is logging done
The process is carried out in several stages: site selection, felling trees, pruning crowns and branches, removing bark, sawing and bucking, measuring and sorting, stacking for transportation. Almost the entire cycle of work is mechanized.
Every year, the volume of timber harvesting increases due to growing needs. If in 2016 it amounted to 214 million meters3 then in 2018-238 million M3 — this is the maximum volume of the country, increased by 12%. There is also an active growth in timber exports. At the same time, the area of leased land has not increased, the growth of indicators is explained by a set of measures against illegal logging. The country's budget revenues from the use of forests amounted to 46 billion rubles.
Approximately 80% of logging is carried out by tenants of plots — about 240 million hectares of forest land have been transferred for long-term use. Rosleskhoz creates the necessary conditions for stable work for conscientious forest users. About 6 thousand companies and individual enterprises are engaged in logging on lease.
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Tenants are obliged to carry out a set of measures:
- forest protection and care;
- growing planting material;
According to statistics, a greater number of suppliers fall on small businesses — 4700 organizations, large — 26, but the volume of procurement is greater.The industry development strategy is aimed at increasing the number of large companies and investment projects, since they carry out the largest development of the cutting area, providing the main increase in the volume of harvesting. Up to 78% of the needs are realized in areas for investment projects.
2.2 million M3 timber is harvested in areas of perpetual use.
Pilot projects related to the intensity of Use and reproduction of forest resources are being actively introduced and implemented at the largest logging enterprises in the country.Since selective logging is still carried out using chainsaws, the goal of the project is to increase the volume of logging through the introduction of modern mechanization tools.
Concepts and action plans are being developed with goals and objectives to implement the intensive model in a number of areas. Since 2015, a phased transition to the developed new forest areas has begun, which by 2030 will lead to the volume of harvesting of 281 million meters.3. To implement projects, you will need:
- purchase of special equipment;
- simplification of the system of interaction of various departments;
- implementation of the open data principle;
- strict control over illegal logging;
- avoiding over-reporting and re-monitoring.
Factors affecting the volume of the workpiece
The efficiency of using the forest, the structure of the material, the volume, depend not only on the person, but also on other circumstances:
- weather conditions;
- sanitary condition of the forest;
- transport accessibility;
- density of forest roads.
With the introduction of a unified Accounting Information System, the situation in the field of logging has improved significantly.Now the possibility of shadow logging operations is excluded. Regulations on accounting and control of all forest operations have been introduced.
Restoration of forest resources
It is extremely important to grow new trees in areas subject to deforestation, fire, in order to ensure the required amount of harvesting in the future, as well as to maintain the ecological balance of the planet.
After all, the forest affects many processes in the atmosphere, on the surface and in the depths of the Earth.:
- maintains water balance by promoting snow accumulation and slow melting;
- promote aeration, soil water permeability, prevent soil salinization;
- reduces wind strength and speed;
- the forest contains a huge amount of carbon;
- it is of great importance for human health — it absorbs and transforms many pollutants, produces phytoncides that kill pathogenic microbes, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, heart and other body systems.
Forest restoration can be carried out in 2 ways: natural — without human intervention or with its help and artificial — forest planting. Until 2019, the volume of deforestation consistently exceeded its reproduction. But already in 2018, reforestation was carried out on 955 thousand hectares of land, and by 2024 it is planned to ensure an absolute balance between deforestation and restoration of forests.
In order for reforestation to be effective, it is necessary to provide care — removing the growth that interferes with the development of the main trees, thinning the area. Without proper care. Valuable tree species die, and their place is taken by those adapted to natural growth.
In practice, corridor care is often used — clearing narrow strips of weeds. Which is temporary.
Huge harm to young shoots is brought by Moose gnawing bark, as well as uncontrolled grazing.
Despite such difficulties of the forest industry as seasonality of work, poor technical equipment, the predominance of small firms that are not able to finance the condition of roads, waste processing, the logging industry is developing dynamically and has great prospects. The main task, along with active use, is to reproduce the volume of the forest in full. To this end, a project to intensify the process is being implemented.